IUCN Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group     ::          Turtle Conservation Fund    ::        Turtle Conservancy     ::        Global Wildlife Consrvation     ::       Support

Volume 4, Number 2- December 2002

Special Focus Section: The Gopherine Tortoises, Gopherus spp.

CONTENTS

Prologue

Editorial comment. ANDERS G.J. RHODIN 247

Articles

The Desert Tortoise, Gopherus agassizii

Defining the desert tortoise(s): our first priority for a coherent conservation strategy. KRISTIN H. BERRY, DAVID J. MORAFKA, AND ROBERT W. MURPHY 249

Is Gopherus agassizii a desert-adapted tortoise, or an exaptive opportunist? Implications for tortoise conservation. DAVID J. MORAFKA AND KRISTIN H. BERRY 263

Reproduction in a desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) population on the Beaver Dam Slope, Washington County, Utah. ANN M. MCLUCKIE AND RICK A. FRIDELL 288

Reproduction of Gopherus agassizii in the Sonoran Desert, Arizona. ROY C. AVERILL-MURRAY 295

The annual reproductive cycle of the male and female desert tortoise: physiology and endocrinology. VALENTINE A. LANCE AND DAVID C. ROSTAL 302

Chronology of sex determination in the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii). DAVID C. ROSTAL, THANE WIBBELS, JANICE S. GRUMBLES, VALENTINE A. LANCE, AND JAMES R. SPOTILA 313

Energy and water balance, diet, and reproduction of female desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii). BRIAN THOMAS HENEN 319

Alien plants and fire in desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) habitat of the Mojave and Colorado deserts. MATTHEW L. BROOKS AND TODD C. ESQUE 330

Selective spring foraging by juvenile desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) in the Mojave Desert: evidence of an adaptive nutritional strategy. OLAV T. OFTEDAL, SCOTT HILLARD, AND DAVID J. MORAFKA 341

Diet selection by the desert tortoise in relation to the flowering phenology of ephemeral plants. W. BRYAN JENNINGS 353

An experimental assessment of color, calcium, and insect dietary preferences of captive juvenile desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii). CHRIS L. OKAMOTO 359

A landscape sampling protocol for estimating distribution and density patterns of desert tortoises at multiple spatial scales. ANTHONY J. KRZYSIK 366

Regional desert tortoise monitoring in the Upper Virgin River Recovery Unit, Washington County, Utah. ANN M. MCLUCKIE, DEBORAH L. HARSTAD, JESSE W. MARR, AND RICK A. FRIDELL 380

Spatial organization of desert tortoises and their burrows at a landscape scale. JEFFREY J. DUDA, ANTHONY J. KRZYSIK, AND JOEL M. MELOCHE 387

Patterns of burrow use by desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) in southcentral Nevada. KURT R. RAUTENSTRAUCH, DANNY L. RAKESTRAW, GREG A. BROWN, JAMES L. BOONE, AND PATRICK E. LEDERLE 398

Comparative dispersion of neonate and headstarted juvenile desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii): a preliminary assessment of age effects. LISA C. HAZARD AND DAVID J. MORAFKA 406

Shell kinesis in juvenile desert tortoises, Gopherus agassizii. MARSHA L. MAROLDA 410

Using growth ring counts to age juvenile desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) in the wild. KRISTIN H. BERRY 416

A condition index for the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii). KENNETH A. NAGY, BRIAN T. HENEN, DEVESH B. VYAS, AND IAN R. WALLIS 425

Effects on survival of desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) urinating during handling. ROY C. AVERILL-MURRAY 430

Deaths of desert tortoises following periods of drought and research manipulation. KRISTIN H. BERRY, E. KAREN SPANGENBERG, BRUCE L. HOMER, AND ELLIOTT R. JACOBSON 436

Impacts of vehicle road traffic on desert tortoise populations with consideration of conservation of tortoise habitat in southern Nevada. KARIN VON SECKENDORFF HOFF AND RONALD WILLIAM MARLOW 449

Comparison of desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) populations in an unused and off-road vehicle area in the Mojave Desert. R. BRUCE BURY AND ROGER A. LUCKENBACH 457

The Gopher Tortoise, Gopherus polyphemus

Reserve area requirements for gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus). JEANNINE OTT EUBANKS, JEFF W. HOLLISTER, CRAIG GUYER, AND WILLIAM K. MICHENER 464

A comparison of GIS and survey estimates of gopher tortoise habitat and numbers of individuals in Florida. EARL D. MCCOY, BETH STYS, AND HENRY R. MUSHINSKY 472

Population biology of the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) in southeast Georgia. DAVID C. ROSTAL AND DOUGLAS N. JONES, JR. 479

The Texas Tortoise, Gopherus berlandieri

Home range and dispersal of Texas tortoises, Gopherus berlandieri, in a managed thornscrub ecosystem. RICHARD T. KAZMAIER1, ERIC C. HELLGREN2, AND DONALD C. RUTHVEN, III 488

Mycoplasmal Disease in Gopherus spp.

Application of diagnostic tests for mycoplasmal infections of desert and gopher tortoises, with management recommendations. DANIEL R. BROWN, ISABELLA M. SCHUMACHER, GRACE S. MCLAUGHLIN, LORI D. WENDLAND, MARY B. BROWN, PAUL A. KLEIN, AND ELLIOTT R. JACOBSON 497